Download the standards Print this page For more than a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have concluded that mathematics education in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. They also draw on the most important international models for mathematical practice, as well as research and input from numerous sources, including state departments of education, scholars, assessment developers, professional organizations, educators, parents and students, and members of the public.

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The Concept and Teaching of Place-Value Richard Garlikov An analysis of representative literature concerning the widely recognized ineffective learning of "place-value" by American children arguably also demonstrates a widespread lack of understanding of the concept of place-value among elementary school arithmetic teachers and among researchers themselves.

Just being able to use place-value to write numbers and perform calculations, and to describe the process is not sufficient understanding to be able to teach it to children in the most complete and efficient manner. A conceptual analysis and explication of the concept of "place-value" points to a more effective method of teaching it.

However, effectively teaching "place-value" or any conceptual or logical subject requires more than the mechanical application of a different method, different content, or the introduction of a different kind of "manipulative". And it is necessary to understand those different methods.

Place-value involves all three mathematical elements. Practice versus Understanding Almost everyone who has had difficulty with introductory algebra has had an algebra teacher say to them "Just work more problems, and it will become clear to you.

You are just not working enough problems. Meeting the complaint "I can't do any of these" with the response "Then do them all" seems absurd, when it is a matter of conceptual understanding.

It is not absurd when it is simply a matter of practicing something one can do correctly, but just not as adroitly, smoothly, quickly, or automatically as more practice would allow. Hence, athletes practice various skills to make them become more automatic and reflexive; students practice reciting a poem until they can do it smoothly; and musicians practice a piece until they can play it with little effort or error.

And practicing something one cannot do very well is not absurd where practice will allow for self-correction.

Hence, a tennis player may be able to work out a faulty stroke himself by analyzing his own form to find flawed technique or by trying different things until he arrives at something that seems right, which he then practices. But practicing something that one cannot even begin to do or understand, and that trial and error does not improve, is not going to lead to perfection or --as in the case of certain conceptual aspects of algebra-- any understanding at all.

What is necessary to help a student learn various conceptual aspects of algebra is to find out exactly what he does not understand conceptually or logically about what he has been presented.

There are any number of reasons a student may not be able to work a problem, and repeating to him things he does understand, or merely repeating 1 things he heard the first time but does not understand, is generally not going to help him.

Until you find out the specific stumbling block, you are not likely to tailor an answer that addresses his needs, particularly if your general explanation did not work with him the first time or two or three anyway and nothing has occurred to make that explanation any more intelligible or meaningful to him in the meantime.

There are a number of places in mathematics instruction where students encounter conceptual or logical difficulties that require more than just practice. Algebra includes some of them, but I would like to address one of the earliest occurring ones -- place-value.

From reading the research, and from talking with elementary school arithmetic teachers, I suspect and will try to point out why I suspect it that children have a difficult time learning place-value because most elementary school teachers as most adults in general, including those who research the effectiveness of student understanding of place-value do not understand it conceptually and do not present it in a way that children can understand it.

And they may even impede learning by confusing children in ways they need not have; e. And a further problem in teaching is that because teachers, such as the algebra teachers referred to above, tend not to ferret out of children what the children specifically don't understand, teachers, even when they do understand what they are teaching, don't always understand what students are learning -- and not learning.ClassZone Book Finder.

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Online homework and grading tools for instructors and students that reinforce student learning through practice and instant feedback. Jul 27, · The new math of the ‘60s, the new new math of the ‘80s and today’s Common Core math all stem from the idea that the traditional way of teaching math simply does not work.

As a nation, we. The Trachtenberg Speed System of Basic Mathematics is a system of mental speed math, created over 70 years ago, which can improve your math ability.

Get our free online math tools for graphing, geometry, 3D, and more!

Jul 27, · The new math of the ‘60s, the new new math of the ‘80s and today’s Common Core math all stem from the idea that the traditional way of teaching math simply does not work.

As a nation, we.

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The Concept and Teaching of Place-Value in Math