Galileo viewed these moons as a smaller Copernican system within the Solar system and used them to support Heliocentrism. Galileo began his telescopic observations in the later part ofand by March was able to publish a small book, The Starry Messenger Sidereus Nunciusdescribing some of his discoveries: Other observations followed, including the phases of Venus and the existence of sunspots. Galileo's contributions caused difficulties for theologians and natural philosophers of the time, as they contradicted scientific and philosophical ideas based on those of Aristotle and Ptolemy and closely associated with the Catholic Church.
It took only two political activists to derail the APF. This event is analyzed as an instance of Inquisitional attack on rational thought and inquiry, in the context of modern liberalism with radical egalitarianism.
The events of August will assure that the already eminent scientist Raymond B.
Cattell will be remembered in history as elevated to the pantheon occupied by such as Roger Bacon, William of Occam, and Galileo Galilei. The infamous events of August and the players will be summarized below, but first a context needs to be established in order to make any sense of the scurrilous attack and the craven response of the American Psychological Association APA.
Approaches to Knowledge The Harvard biologist, historian and philosopher of science Ernst Mayr has suggested that as human populations evolve from savagery to civilization their approach to knowledge takes one or another of two paths. One approach leads to modern science, the other to authoritative dogma.
The direction toward science, traceable back to the philosophies of ancient Greece, is unique to Western civilization. The much more common direction toward authoritative dogmas is illustrated by the revealed religions that sprang from the Middle East. The direction toward science traces to the first recorded Western philosopher, Thales of Miletus c.
Thales maintained that to gain knowledge and understanding one should start with naturalistic observation, that is, descriptions of events as they exist in the real world. We should then seek natural explanations for natural phenomena. Gods, supernatural beings, and forces or events that were outside the system should not be invoked as explanations for events within the system.
A third major position was that it is acceptable, even encouraged, to question existing explanations, to use criticism in order to improve knowledge and theories. These three principles that trace to the beginnings of recorded Western thought capture the essence of modern science; naturalistic observation, natural explanation, and criticism as a beneficial tool to advancing knowledge.
The road to dogma starts with assertions of knowledge based in authority. Often from a great man or leader come statements, frequently but not always based in revelation. The religious and political aspects of dogmatic systems often become commingled. The revelations leading to dogmas often claim supernatural inspiration, but this is not necessarily the case.
Christian theology, Marxian sociology, and Freudian psychoanalytic theory equally well illustrate dogmatic belief systems. The systems with their statements to account for reality become codified into a set of rigid beliefs.
Not only is criticism and questioning not encouraged, it is condemned. The less than complete supporter, the doubter, is shunned, outcast, outlawed, a heretic, criminal and evil sinner.
Followers will believe on the basis of acceptance of authority "on faith" and will not deviate from the established dogmas that tend to become ever more rigid.
Encounters with the partially understood real world, in all its foibles, always lead to discrepancy between dogma and natural observation of real phenomena. It is considered necessary to preserve the authoritarian dogma and the power of the authorities in the face of conflicting truths.
The Path of Righteousness knows what is good for man and society. Dissenters, free thinkers, or those with new knowledge are viewed as a threat to all that is Good. Sanctions, laws, censorship, need to be imposed and enforced. This is the realm of Inquisitions. In the history of Western civilization there have been four main identifiable inquisitions.
It is the fourth that we suffer today. The first major inquisition was established in AD to suppress heresy.The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it.
Directing his polemics against the pedantry of his time, Galileo, as his own popularizer, addressed his writings to contemporary laymen. His support of Copernican cosmology, against the Church's strong opposition, his development of a telescope, and his unorthodox opinions as a philosopher of science were the central concerns of his career and the subjects of four of his most important writings.
His father was the musician Vincenzo schwenkreis.como Galilei's mistress Marina Gamba ( – 21 August ?) bore him two daughters, (Maria Celeste (Virginia, –) and Livia (–), both of whom became nuns), and a son, Vincenzo (–), a lutenist.
Raymond B. Cattell and The Fourth Inquisition. By Glayde Whitney Florida State University.
This paper originally appeared in The Mankind Quarterly, vol. 38, #1 & 2, Fall/Winter , p Raymond B. Cattell was selected to receive the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement from the American Psychological Foundation.
The Scientific Revolution - There were three major revolutions at work during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, the scientific revolution, the enlightenment revolution and the political revolution.
The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it.