Navy ships sailed on a parallel course. The Allies hoped to lure the Germans into an uneven battle. But when the British Admiralty mistakenly thought the German battleship Tirpitz with firepower superior to the British ships and the battle cruiser Scheer were on their way to intercept PQ17, the Admiralty ordered British and American warships to abandon the convoy to avoid heavy Navy losses. They told the convoy to:
But that was not how most German military leaders felt. Instead, in their memoirs they argued that Rommel was at best an adequate tactician and not a bad leader of small units, that he had been an adequate division commander, but his command of corps, army and army groups was often flawed.
Of course, Rommel was no longer present to defend himself. His peripheral involvement in the July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler had led the Gestapo to compel the field marshal to take his own life that October. They can also provide insights into how German military leaders as a whole approached the strategic and operational problems of World War II and how well they understood the larger issues involved in the war.
He had risen from the obscurity of a mere division command one among approximately to an army command with the rank of field marshal. His leadership of the 7th Panzer Division during the blitzkrieg in France had contributed considerably to his rapid promotion through the command hierarchy.
One recent German account of the invasion of France asserts that Rommel played an even more important role in the breakthrough on the Meuse — which led to the Allied collapse — than Heinz Guderian did.
Fresh from the victory in France, in early the Oberkommando des Heeres OKH — Army High Command selected Rommel to command a small corps of German mobile and mechanized troops that was being sent to North Africa to prevent the collapse of the Italian position in Libya.
Under strict orders to remain on the defensive once he arrived, Rommel instead hit the ground running and began attacking the British even before his entire force had reached the desert.
In a series of spectacular advances, he consistently disobeyed the instructions of not only his titular bosses in Rome, the Italian Comando Supremo, but also his superiors in Berlin, the OKH. His mission was to keep the British out of Libya and to restore the Italian position in North Africa.
He more than accomplished this. Along the way, he also took the fortress port of Tobruk. Some historians have criticized Rommel for not halting after his victory at Gazala so that German and Italian airborne and amphibious forces could assault Malta.
However, given the performance of Italian forces up to that point in the war, Rommel had reason to be dubious about the success of such an operation — and he was probably correct. Certainly Hitler agreed with him. Rommel sensed that he had the enemy on the run, and that this was the moment of opportunity that could lead to the fall of Egypt.
Impressed with what he had accomplished thus far, Hitler promoted Rommel — who had been only a major general at the start of the war — to field marshal on June 22, But things were about to change.
In August the British finally discovered a field commander, Lt. Bernard Law Montgomery, who would fight the Eighth Army in accordance with its actual abilities. The Afrika Korps was brought to a halt, and by the end of September, Rommel was suffering from exhaustion and a bout of jaundice that finally forced him to return to Germany for treatment.
Not yet fully recovered, the Afrika Korps commander rushed back to the front, but by the time he arrived those in charge had already lost the battle. For the first time in North Africa, the Germans were up against a commander willing and able to take advantage of the overwhelming ground and air superiority the British possessed.
Rommel recognized that the Axis now faced a much different situation in North Africa, and he attempted to make the situation clear to Hitler and military leaders in Rome and Berlin. All he received in return were obdurate orders to hold fast.
That he did, and as a result he came close to losing what was left of the Afrika Korps. Allied air and naval superiority, he told them, was such that German and Italian forces would inevitably go down to defeat.
By this point, he had a very clear idea of what the Anglo-American naval, air and logistical superiority meant for German military power.Omaha Beach Surrounded by steep cliffs and heavily defended, Omaha was the bloodiest of the D-Day beaches, with roughly 2, U.S.
troops turning up dead, wounded or missing. This tour will take you to sectors where the American V Corps and VII Corps landings occurred at Omaha and Utah beaches with eperienced guides.
Courtesy of the Eisenhower Center for American Studies, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. and Allied commanders had determined that the neutralization of these guns was the key to the fate of the Omaha and Utah landings.
If the signal did not come, they were to land at Omaha Beach and attack the Pointe from the rear. Pointe du Hoc as. Omaha Beach: Omaha Beach, second beach from the west among the five landing areas of the Normandy Invasion of World War II.
It was assaulted on June 6, (D-Day of the invasion), by units of the U.S. 29th and 1st infantry divisions, many of whose . This is the place where the successful landing of the American Ivy Division (the 4th Infantry Division) occurred under orders of General Barton and General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
with others in the first attack wave at Utah Beach. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from schwenkreis.com