John of Damascus a Syrian monk and presbyter19th-century Arabic icon The earliest surviving written criticisms of Islam are to be found in the writings of Christians who came under the early dominion of the Islamic Caliphate.
In the previous chapter, we discussed at length the Jewish impact on intellectual Rome prior to the advent of Christianity.
Similarly, Jews living on the Arabian Peninsula impacted positively on their Arab neighbors. During the days of Jewish clashes with the Roman Empire, Jews fled to areas outside the control of Rome and founded many towns and villages in Arabia.
One very famous town, almost certainly founded by Jews, was Yathrib. Today Yathrib is better known as Medina and is considered Islam's second holiest city after Mecca.
As in Rome, the local Jews attracted significant numbers of converts to their way of life and many more admirers. Hirsch Goldberg, in the Jewish Connection p.
In Arabia, whole tribes Rise of islam essay to Judaism, including two kinds of the Himyarites. French Bible critic Ernest Renan remarked that 'only a hair's breadth prevented all Arabia from becoming Jewish. In the early stages, Mohammed was greatly impressed by the Jews.
He is recorded as having said: Unbelievers are those that say, 'Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary' Unbelievers are those that say, 'Allah is one of three. If they do not desist from so saying, those of them that disbelieve shall be sternly punished.
Goiten in Jews and Arabs pp. He saw his mission as bringing them back.
Paul Johnson, in his History of the Jews p. What he [Mohammed] seems to have wished to do was to destroy the polytheistic paganism of the oasis culture by giving the Arabs Jewish ethical monotheism in a language they could understand and in terms adapted to their ways.
There is no argument that the Arab world into which Mohammed was born was badly in need of moral values and social reform. The Mecca of his day was a central place of pagan worship.
The Arab tribesmen of the region worshipped a pantheon of gods there, including Al-Lat, the sun goddess, and Al-Uzza, a goddess associated with the planet Venus, both of whom were daughters of the chief deity, known as Al-Ilah, Allah or "the God.
The Kaaba, the shrine enclosing the famous black meteorite which was worshipped in Mecca before Mohammed's time, was also a site for an altar where blood sacrifices were offered to these and other gods. The morality of the neighboring tribesmen could, charitably, be described as chaotic.
Huston Smith, in his classic The Religions of Man, p. Mohammed's Vision Mohammed was repelled by the cruel and crude reality around him.
In the yearat the age of 40, he escaped to a desert cave where, according to Muslim tradition, he experienced a series of mystical visions, including revelations from the Angel Gabriel. He returned from the desert imbued with a spiritual mission to transform the pagan society around him.
Islam, according to Mohammed, was built on five pillars: While most people think the term Jihad means holy war the actual meaning of Jihad is "struggle" and can be used to refer to both the internal struggle between good and evil that occurs with in all of us as well as external struggle between the world of the Muslim dhar al Islam and the world of the non-Muslim called the World of War dhar al Hare.
The earliest use of the term Jihad as mentioned in 7th century Islamic law codes sharia refers to external struggle against the non-Islamic world. After three years, Mohammed had barely forty converts. But, imbued with a passion that has been the hallmark of the truly great visionaries of the world, Mohammed would not give up.
And, little by little, he built a steady following of committed loyalists. The more followers he attracted, the more attention, and with it, the more hostility.
The merchants of Mecca, whose livelihood depended on the pagan sites and rites of the city, weren't going to be easily displaced. A murder plot was hatched, but Mohammed escaped just in the nick of time.
While persecution of the Muslims was mounting in Mecca, the city of Yithrab was experiencing problems of internal strife and a delegation decided that the fiery preacher from Mecca would be the man to bring order to chaos.
After winning the pledge of city representatives to worship only Allah, Mohammed agreed to migrate. His journey to Yithrab in the year CE, the year 1 of the Islamic calendar, was immortalized as the Hegira.
Thus his life was saved and a new horizon opened for his teachings.Islam Web Sites; Lesson Plans, Activities, and more; Islam Web Sites. Muslims This recent PBS addition examines Islam through stories of diverse Muslims. Short Essay on the Rise and Spread of Islam Pragati Sen Advertisements: The founder of Islam Prophet Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca in Arabia around A.D.
in the Qureshi tribe. His father was Abdulla. The son of Hashim of the Qureshi tribe. His father died before his birth and at six years of age his mother Amina also passed away.
Short Essay on the Rise and Spread of Islam Pragati Sen Advertisements: The founder of Islam Prophet Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca in Arabia around A.D. in the Qureshi tribe. His father was Abdulla. The son of Hashim of the Qureshi tribe. His father died before his birth and at six years of age his mother Amina also passed away.
Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion with around an estimated 90% of the population. Almost the entirety of Egypt's Muslims are Sunnis, with a small minority of Shia and Ahmadi Muslims. The latter, however, are not recognized by Egypt.
 Islam has been recognized as the state religion since Since there has been no . Now it will all be controlled by the Diyanet (Muslim religious authority in Turkey) as the latest news confirm.
Diyanet was created in to replace the Ottoman Sheikh al-Islam, the mufti with the authority to confirm new sultans and caliphs and who also serve as chief legal adviser to the soon to be Caliph Erdogan. This is similar to when the prior .
Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America. Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.