Board of Educationwhich outlawed segregated education, or the Montgomery Bus Boycott and culminated in the late s or early s. Despite the fact that they were not always united around strategy and tactics and drew members from different classes and backgrounds, the movement nevertheless cohered around the aim of eliminating the system of Jim Crow segregation and the reform of some of the worst aspects of racism in American institutions and life.
Rooted in Africa, Raised in America: The Africans brought to the New World to toil their lives away as slaves were generally cultivators. They also possessed a wide range of skills that they had used for generations to wrest a living from the land and among these millions of unwilling immigrants were many skilled artisans.
They included builders who erected houses for their families and other structures that sheltered their annual harvests. When confronting the challenges of living in the dense tropical forests of their homelands, they turned to their local blacksmiths who forged the necessary iron tools that allowed them to clear and maintain their garden plots.
Basket makers provided them with various containers that allowed crops to be harvested and stored until needed. Potters turned local clays, found most often along the banks of numerous rivers and streams, into useful cooking and storage vessels.
Other domestic implements, items like serving bowls and drinking cups, could be fashioned from gourds of varying sizes and baskets were made from reeds, palm leaves, and a wide variety other vegetal materials. Over the course of several millennia African populations developed the means to live successfully within a challenging environment of extreme heat, prolonged rain, and dense forest cover.
Labeled by Europeans as savages, these people possessed a wide array of tangible skills that would ultimately prove to be precious immigrant gifts that they would contribute to the making of the Americas.
The well-documented horrors of captivity in the foul holds of slave ships drive from our minds any images except those of horrible misery and suffering. Yet objects of considerable creativity, on occasion, also made the same voyage from Africa to the Americas.
There is today in the British Museum a drum carved from a section of a tree trunk that was collected in Virginia some time between and There can be little doubt that this musical instrument was used in some plantation context almost half a century before the American Revolution.
The presence of such an unquestionably African object in the Americas indicates that the captives who were taken far from their homeland were still able to retain selected aspects of their native identities.
It was more often the case that elements of their culture—language, religion, and foodways to name a few—would over time become blended or creolized expressions as Africans evolved into African-Americans.
Banjo being played at slave quarter with a drum accompaniment. In plantation societies the playing of drums was generally outlawed due to the fear by slave owners that such instruments could be used to send messages related to rebellion and escape. Such prohibitions did not however apply to other African musical instruments such as the banjo.
In fact, the appealing sound of the banjo would, by the dawning of the nineteenth century, ignite a national fascination for its compelling combination of melody and percussion.
Functionally the banjo joined the lute to the drum, an act that fused melody with a strong rhythmic punctuation. This combination of tune and percussion in a single instrument proved to be so appealing that banjo tunes that were first heard in plantation contexts are played today.
African Potter and Colonoware samples. Archaeologists, who have probed the grounds on old plantation sites dating back to the seventeenth century, regularly turn up fragments of unglazed earthenware pottery.
Seeming to be very crude when compared to the stoneware vessels commonly in use in Euro-American households, these items were initially presumed to have been made by Native Americans of the colonial period who perished shortly after the arrival of the first European settlers.
Initially labeled as Colono-ware, it is now clear that many of these pieces were fashioned by Africans. Consequently these rough earthenware vessels should be recognized as Afro-Colono pieces if not, in some cases, simply as examples of African pottery.
Consequently, the routines carried out in their domestic quarters could—and did—reconnect them to some of the practices of their African homelands as they fashioned their own clay vessels and used them to cook their meals according their own preferences.
Given that Africans were the largest population group in South Carolina during the colonial era, it should not be too surprising that black Carolinians would continue to use their African languages when conversing among themselves. But even when they had developed a creolized variant called Gullah, this new language still retained many African elements.
To some white observers these buildings were too small and thus seemed uncomfortably crowded. This is because when English rules of measure were employed, room sizes were generally in range of square feet 16 feet x 16 feet. In West African buildings rooms are considerably smaller being, on average, closer to square feet 10 feet x 10 feet.
The Afro-Carolinian average room size, based on a sample of excavated foundations, was square feet approximately 11 feet x 11 feet.The essay's body is composed of a series of close, interpretive readings of passages from the Humanities text that support the assertion of your thesis.
The essay's conclusion thoughtfully reflects on what you have presented in the paper. We received many excellent essays and, as always, appreciate the chance to read interesting work exploring the medical humanities.
Many other excellent articles have been added to the Food section of Hektoen International thanks to our contest participants, and we encourage our readers to explore them, along with our winners.
Athabasca University (AU) is a leading Canadian online university focused on the future of learning. AU offers a wide variety of flexible courses and programs to students all over the world. The Smith's Prize was the name of each of two prizes awarded annually to two research students in mathematics and theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge from Following the reorganization in , it is now awarded under the name of Smith-Knight Prize and Rayleigh-Knight Prize.
Humanities Essay Prize Competitons The Humanities Essay Prizes will be awarded for outstanding essays written for courses in the Humanities.
Up to sixteen prizes may be awarded each year (2 per term per level). Welcome! The Federation of State Humanities Councils and the National Humanities Alliance are organizing the National Humanities Conference in New Orleans, LA to bring the public and academic humanities communities together again to share best practices, encourage collaboration, and inspire conversation on how we can best use the humanities to respond to local, national, and global.