White, author of Fire in the Ashes: Europe in Mid-Century wrote, "Socialism is the belief and the hope that by proper use of government power, men can be rescued from their helplessness in the wild cycling cruelty of depression and boom.
A strong central governmental apparatus proved able to channel scarce resources into the rapid development of heavy… Origins The origins of socialism as a political movement lie in the Industrial Revolution.
Its intellectual roots, however, reach back almost as far as recorded thought—even as far as Moses, according to one history of the subject.
Early Christian communities also practiced the sharing of goods and labour, a simple form of socialism subsequently followed in certain forms of monasticism. Several monastic orders continue these practices today.
Money has been abolished, and people are free to take what they need from common storehouses. All the Utopians live simply, moreover, so that they are able to meet their needs with only a few hours of work a day, leaving the rest for leisure.
Religious and political turmoil, however, soon inspired others to try to put utopian ideas into practice. Chief among them was the Diggerswhose members claimed that God had created the world for people to share, not to divide and exploit for private profit.
Whether utopian or practical, these early visions of socialism were largely agrarian. Such beliefs led to his execution for conspiring to overthrow the government.
The publicity that followed his trial and death, however, made him a hero to many in the 19th century who reacted against the emergence of industrial capitalism. Utopian socialism Conservatives who saw the settled life of agricultural society disrupted by the insistent demands of industrialism were as likely as their radical counterparts to be outraged by the self-interested competition of capitalists and the squalor of industrial cities.
The radicals distinguished themselves, however, by their commitment to equality and their willingness to envision a future in which industrial power and capitalism were divorced. To their moral outrage at the conditions that were reducing many workers to pauperism, the radical critics of industrial capitalism added a faith in the power of people to put science and an understanding of history to work in the creation of a new and glorious society.
Saint-Simon did not call for public ownership of productive property, but he did advocate public control of property through central planning, in which scientists, industrialists, and engineers would anticipate social needs and direct the energies of society to meet them.
Such a system would be more efficient than capitalism, according to Saint-Simon, and it even has the endorsement of history itself. Saint-Simon believed that history moves through a series of stages, each of which is marked by a particular arrangement of social classes and a set of dominant beliefs.
Thus, feudalismwith its landed nobility and monotheistic religion, was giving way to industrialism, a complex form of society characterized by its reliance on science, reason, and the division of labour.
In such circumstances, Saint-Simon argued, it makes sense to put the economic arrangements of society in the hands of its most knowledgeable and productive members, so that they may direct economic production for the benefit of all.
Another early socialist, Robert Owenwas himself an industrialist. Owen first attracted attention by operating textile mills in New Lanark, Scot. If people are selfish, depraved, or vicious, it is because social conditions have made them so.
Change the conditions, he argued, and people will change; teach them to live and work together in harmony, and they will do so. Thus, Owen set out in to establish a model of social organization, New Harmonyon land he had purchased in the U.
This was to be a self-sufficient, cooperative community in which property was commonly owned.Social Chauvinism. Aggressive or fanatical patriotism, particularly during time of war, in support of one's own nation versus other nation(s).
During WWI, nearly every political party took a social-chauvinist stand; with few exceptions.
The failure of socialism in countries around the world can be traced to one critical defect: it is a system that ignores incentives.
In a capitalist economy, incentives are of the utmost importance. Socialism is an economic and political system based on public or collective ownership of the means of production, which emphasizes equality rather than achievement. Note: The views expressed on schwenkreis.com are not necessarily those of the Mises Institute.
“Socialism is a philosophy of failure, the creed of ignorance, and the gospel of envy, its inherent virtue is the equal sharing of misery.” In the United States, the poorest 10 percent of people are better off than the richest 10 percent in any third world or developing nation.
In order to understand the disaster that is unfolding in Venezuela, we need to journey through the most recent century of our history and look at how our institutions have changed over time.