Does Marx's dictum lead to novel insights?
It was intended to link theory and practice in order to discern and interpret long term historical change. The idea of class struggle was not unique either to the nineteenth century or to Marx. Marx believed that history could be divided into five successive stages each of which would create either a class or technology that would ultimately cause the downfall of the system.
The overt need for slaves, according to Marx, would inevitably lead to their collapse, as happened in the Roman Empire. Marx then proposed a gradual growth in social classes through the Monarchy of Feudalism, to the growth in merchant classes and Parliamentary democracy of Capitalism and eventually, via council democracy of Socialism, to the statelessness and classlessness of Communism.
Marx did intend class struggle to influence politics and defined it as essentially binary, for example, slave vs free, owners vs non-owners.
It was in this dynamic environment that the Marxist analysis of history was promulgated and the insight that although class struggle was a fundamental driver of history it was only when linked with modes of production that Marxist analysis became unique. Hegel developed the idea of alienation.
Hegel believed that people overcame alienation by accepting the logic of existing societies and conforming.
It is this strand of Marxist thought that illustrates the general progression of historical development and its driver, class struggle and the economic infrastructure of society. These forces can be seen across the modern world from Russia to China.
It also demonstrates the limits of the interpretation in that different elements within society have individual autonomy and also a relationship to other parts of the totality, and example being religion. It is prescient to consider that although Marxist methods are concerned with the past it is subordinate to its passion for the future.
It shows that social relations between people are ultimately subservient to the economics of a given society. The way in which epochs and societies change is through periods of social revolution which arise from the conflict between the forces and relations of production, though Marx saw people as simply a vehicle through which the conflict gets resolved.
The nation had overthrown the rule of absolute monarchy and replaced it with Parliamentary democracy, conquered swathes of the globe for the purposes of economic and financial growth, established the principle of private property and created large scale financial institutions.
The urban working classes however did not see significant improvement in their standard of living and thus it was a period of increasing protest including the Chartists and the Plug Plot Riots.
Political agitation in Britain and international unrest led Marx to conclude that the move to socialism had begun but the analysis failed to anticipate the ability of the existing capitalist system to adapt. Trade Unionism, increased suffrage and the eventual emergence of the Welfare state were not anticipated.
It could be argued that many communists regarded fascism as an aberration of capitalism so could be ignored and not confronted. Marxist methodology had led them to believe that the future was inevitable so fascism was an irrelevance.
Marxist analysis rejects this by urging political struggle. Marx is indicating that the ultimate victory of communism is not certain. This approach is an explanation of the emergence of social democracy where the capitalist system has used a portion of its profit to prevent social revolution.
An example would be the welfare state. This is relevant today because any government has to make a pragmatic judgement when deciding how far it can implement its ideology within a competitive system.
In recent times the poor and working classes across the Middle East have begun to demand democracy and an end to dictatorship and oppression. The protest movement achieved regime change across the region and led to the establishment of democracy in many nations.
The fall of communism in Eastern Europe in is another example. In some countries, such as Egypt, after the initial uprising religious differences appeared. This again illustrates that a Marxist analysis is complicated by factors other than economics and its relationship to class alone. It can therefore be considered by historians as a legitimate lens through which to view and analyse contemporary events.
Marx successfully analysed the simultaneous revolutions of with the same methodology. This is again illustrative of the Marxist approach linking the past to the future.
There is no current evidence that Marx was correct in his prediction that developed industrial nations will move to the fourth and fifth stages of history.Structuralists proposed structural reading of Marxism in the following way (macro perspective of society): o must have sufficient differential roles and assignment of people to those role (social stratification) functional view of culture insists therefore upon the principle that in every type of.
Marxist, believe doctors act as agents of social control, to keep the workforce healthy, a healthy workforce is a productive workforce. Doctors indirectly work for the capitalists, as their job is to get people back to work as quickly as possible. Sep 27, · Best Answer: marx religion is the opiate of the masses and the priesthood are part of the ruling elite.
functionalist that it keeps people in order with fear of hell and doesn't rock the boat of capitalism The poor are always with us - said Jesus also the hymn all Status: Resolved.
Essay Task – Examine the differences between Marxist, Feminist and Functionalist views of the family. Please note this is an essay which will need to be at least words in length.
In your essay you must include all the words listed in . Marxism & Education. Index to the works of Marxists and others on education, cognitive psychology and child development.
Because Marxists have tended to approach the whole range of psychological issues — development, feeling, neurosis, pathology, personality and character — from the point of view of cognitive and linguistic development, much of the material in this subject archive is also.
The Marxist View on the Role of the Education System In this essay I am going to examine the Marxist view that the role of the education system is to reproduce and.