Catherine Crowley October The disproportionate referral of bilingual and culturally diverse students to special education and related services is a pressing challenge in public school systems. Not only are unnecessary services a drain on resources, but they are harmful to children, taking them away from the classroom and inevitably stigmatizing them.
Catherine Crowley October The disproportionate referral of bilingual and culturally diverse students to special education and related services is a pressing challenge in public school systems.
Not only are unnecessary services a drain on resources, but they are harmful to children, taking them away from the classroom and inevitably stigmatizing them. In addition, an incorrect diagnosis may mean that a child does not receive the services he or she does need.
Accurate assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse students is difficult in any area. Assessing the speech and language skills of these students is even more challenging. The evaluator must make the crucial differential diagnosis between a communication disorder and something else.
This "something else" could have a cultural basis, such as a mismatch between demands of school and home, or a linguistic basis, such as evidence of the normal process of second language acquisition or speaking a non-standard dialect of English.
This digest describes the current preferred practice in the assessment of communication disorders in culturally and linguistically diverse students.
What qualifies as a communication disorder? The challenge with culturally and linguistically diverse students is that many of the traditional assessment tools and benchmarks are not based upon their speech communities.
This dialect is often identified as the one spoken by newscasters or in educational settings. While it is critical that students acquire this dialect, evaluators cannot identify students with a communication disorder because they speak a different dialect. Why not use test scores to identify a communication disorder?
To do this, the evaluator considers: How accurate is the test in distinguishing typically developing students from students with communication disorders? Do the test items make sense? Did significant numbers of the subjects used to norm the test have similar linguistic and cultural backgrounds as the student being evaluated?
Are the test results consistent for a student even if the test is given again or given by a different evaluator? With English language learners, the use of translated versions of speech and language tests pose even greater problems.
For example, many translations provide word-for-word translations which do not account for a lack of equivalent linguistic forms in the second language. As a result, scores from these translated versions should not be used to diagnose a communication disorder.
How does the evaluator determine whether a student has a communication disorder? The evaluator approaches this phase as both an anthropologist and a detective.
Teacher interviews and portfolio reviews on overall school performance, both currently and historically. Tasks designed to probe particular areas of speech and language, whether using standardized or nonstandardized tools, including: How does the evaluator analyze the information?
After all the critical information is gathered, the evaluator analyzes a number of factors to determine whether any apparent difficulties are due to a true communication disorder or to something else-such as a communication difference or a lack of prior exposure.
Often the research is limited. The evaluator considers how social and cultural factors might have influenced the quality and quantity of information gathered.
The evaluator also considers how the particular information-gathering tasks might be culturally unfamiliar to the student. The evaluator distinguishes between the effect of poor educational experiences and a true communication disorder. Substandard school instruction may impact many aspects including the fund of general knowledge, vocabulary skills, problem solving skills, literacy skills, and, of course, success in meeting curriculum standards.
This linguistic knowledge also enables the evaluator to distinguish an accent from an articulation or phonological delay.
In the end, the evaluator analyzes the data to determine whether the student has a communication disorder, and if so, the level of severity of that disorder. Describes a variety of a language. Dialects are seen as applicable to all languages and all speakers.
All languages are analyzed into a range of dialects, which reflect the regional and social background of their speakers. A group of people who share at least one speech variety in common. The selection of the specific variety depends upon such variables as the participants, the topic, the function, and the location of the speech event.
Parent report assessment of language and communication. What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school. Language in Society Vol. Psychometric review of language and articulation tests for preschool children.Extraordinary talent in a particular area, such as math, drawing, verbal communication or music A significant gap between your child’s performance in school and his performance on aptitude tests Signs of a processing disorder, such as having trouble following spoken directions or stories that are read aloud.
One theory is that social communication disorder may be due to a “glitch” in the brain’s right hemisphere that makes it harder for kids to process verbal and visual information simultaneously. Characteristics Causes And Definition Of Learning Disabilities Communication Disorders And Giftedness.
Running head: Learning disabilities Learning Disabilities Anthony Genchi Grand Canyon University SPE February 22, Abstract Individuals who have a learning disability, communication disorder, or are giftedness may have a rough time in the classroom setting. The most common conditions that affect children's communication include language-based learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, cerebral palsy, mental disabilities, cleft lip or palate, and autism spectrum disorders.
Mention the terms “intellectual giftedness” and “learning disability” and there is a general understanding of what each term means. However, most people are unaware that in many. Accurate assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse students is difficult in any area.
Assessing the speech and language skills of these students is even more challenging. The evaluator must make the crucial differential diagnosis between a communication disorder and something else.