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In Italian scientist Galileo Galilei, using his own telescope, modeled on an invention recently made in the Netherlands, discovered that the Moon, far from being smooth and utterly unlike Earth, had mountains and craters. By using the lengths of their shadows, Galileo was… In Galileo applied for the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna but was unsuccessful.
He also found some ingenious theorems on centres of gravity again, circulated in manuscript that brought him recognition among mathematicians and the patronage of Guidobaldo del Monte —a nobleman and author of several important works on mechanics. As a result, he obtained the chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa in There, according to his first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani —Galileo demonstrated, by dropping bodies of different weights from the top of the famous Leaning Towerthat the speed of fall of a heavy object is not proportional to its weight, as Aristotle had claimed.
The manuscript tract De motu On Motionfinished during this period, shows that Galileo was abandoning Aristotelian notions about motion and was instead taking an Archimedean approach to the problem. But his attacks on Aristotle made him unpopular with his colleagues, and in his contract was not renewed.
His patrons, however, secured him the chair of mathematics at the University of Paduawhere he taught from until His university salary could not cover all his expenses, and he therefore took in well-to-do boarding students whom he tutored privately in such subjects as fortification.
He also sold a proportional compass, or sector, of his own devising, made by an artisan whom he employed in his house.
Perhaps because of these financial problems, he did not marry, but he did have an arrangement with a Venetian woman, Marina Gamba, who bore him two daughters and a son.
In the midst of his busy life he continued his research on motion, and by he had determined that the distance fallen by a body is proportional to the square of the elapsed time the law of falling bodies and that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabolaboth conclusions that contradicted Aristotelian physics.
In the spring of he heard that in the Netherlands an instrument had been invented that showed distant things as though they were nearby. Others had done the same; what set Galileo apart was that he quickly figured out how to improve the instrument, taught himself the art of lens grinding, and produced increasingly powerful telescopes.
In August of that year he presented an eight-powered instrument to the Venetian Senate Padua was in the Venetian Republic. He was rewarded with life tenure and a doubling of his salary. Galileo was now one of the highest-paid professors at the university. In the fall of Galileo began observing the heavens with instruments that magnified up to 20 times.
In January he discovered four moons revolving around Jupiter. He also found that the telescope showed many more stars than are visible with the naked eye. These discoveries were earthshaking, and Galileo quickly produced a little book, Sidereus Nuncius The Sidereal Messengerin which he described them.
He dedicated the book to Cosimo II de Medici —the grand duke of his native Tuscanywhom he had tutored in mathematics for several summers, and he named the moons of Jupiter after the Medici family: Before he left Padua he had discovered the puzzling appearance of Saturnlater to be shown as caused by a ring surrounding it, and in Florence he discovered that Venus goes through phases just as the Moon does.
Although these discoveries did not prove that Earth is a planet orbiting the Sunthey undermined Aristotelian cosmology: As a result, Galileo was confirmed in his belief, which he had probably held for decades but which had not been central to his studies, that the Sun is the centre of the universe and that Earth is a planet, as Copernicus had argued.
Aristotle's theory of the solar system. After a brief controversy about floating bodies, Galileo again turned his attention to the heavens and entered a debate with Christoph Scheiner —a German Jesuit and professor of mathematics at Ingolstadtabout the nature of sunspots of which Galileo was an independent discoverer.
In he wrote a letter to his student Benedetto Castelli — in Pisa about the problem of squaring the Copernican theory with certain biblical passages. Several Dominican fathers in Florence lodged complaints against Galileo in Rome, and Galileo went to Rome to defend the Copernican cause and his good name.
In his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo discussed the problem of interpreting biblical passages with regard to scientific discoveries but, except for one example, did not actually interpret the Bible.
That task had been reserved for approved theologians in the wake of the Council of Trent —63 and the beginning of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. But the tide in Rome was turning against the Copernican theory, and inwhen the cleric Paolo Antonio Foscarini c.
Only slowly did he recover from this setback. Through a student, he entered a controversy about the nature of comets occasioned by the appearance of three comets in After several exchanges, mainly with Orazio Grassi —a professor of mathematics at the Collegio Romano, he finally entered the argument under his own name.
Il saggiatore The Assayerpublished inwas a brilliant polemic on physical reality and an exposition of the new scientific method. Galileo here discussed the method of the newly emerging sciencearguing: Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe, which stands continually open to our gaze.
But the book cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and read the letters in which it is composed. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it.
He also drew a distinction between the properties of external objects and the sensations they cause in us—i. Publication of Il saggiatore came at an auspicious moment, for Maffeo Cardinal Barberini —a friend, admirer, and patron of Galileo for a decade, was named Pope Urban VIII as the book was going to press.
Galileo told the pope about his theory of the tides developed earlierwhich he put forward as proof of the annual and diurnal motions of Earth.Heritage History - Biography of Galileo Galilei; Wolfram Research - Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography - Biography of Galileo Galilei; The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Galileo Galilei; Britannica Websites.
Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The life and key inventions of Galileo Galilei, a scientist, inventor, and astronomer, who is considered to be the Father of Scientific Reason.
Read this biography of Galileo Galilei to find more on his life. Financial difficulties cut short Galileo's education at the university, which he left. A history of galileo galellis education and achievements. Galileo galilei was a highly prolific thinker and inventor who lived during the 16th and 17th centuries he.
Galileo Galilei. Occupation: Scientist, mathematician, and Astronomer Born: February 15, in Pisa, Italy Died: January 8, Tuscany, Italy Best known for: Improving the telescope to be used to study the planets and stars.
Aug 21, · Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa in , the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a musician and scholar. In he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine, but was soon sidetracked by mathematics. Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, He was the oldest of seven children.
His father was a musician and wool trader, who wanted his son to study medicine as there was more money in medicine. At age eleven, Galileo was sent off to study in a Jesuit monastery. After four years.